Sunday Short Courses

Organizer: Mike Marko

  • These full-day courses run from 8:30 AM to 5:00 PM on Sunday, August 7.
  • Additional registration fees apply; see M&M 2011 website for details.
  • A certificate of participation will be issued to each participant.
  • Morning and afternoon coffee breaks are included in your registration fee. Lunch is on your own.


X-10 Cryo-Preparation for Biological EM
Kent McDonald

In this course we will briefly review why cryo-techniques for specimen preparation are superior to conventional methods. We will discuss some low-cost-alternative cryo-methods, as well as demonstrate some of the latest equipment and techniques for high pressure freezing, plunge freezing and cryosectioning. CryoSEM, and freeze fracture. The Tokuyasu method for immunolabeling will also be covered briefly. Persons taking this course should leave with a better understanding of these cryotechniques and their role in different applications such as EM tomography, vitreous cryosectioning, EM immunolabeling, as well as routine use for the best available preservation of cellular fine structure.

X-11 Immunolabeling Technology for Light and Electron Microscopy
Caroline Miller

The requirements for successful immunohistochemical and immunocytochemical labeling vary widely with different biological systems. The optimal techniques for light-microscope labeling often differ greatly from those needed for electron microscopy. The basics of immunolabeling at the light and electron microscope level will be presented, illustrated with examples from several different biological systems. The course will cover specimen preparation, multiple labeling, immunogold labeling and enhancement methods, and correlative LM/EM techniques.

X-12 Live Cell Imaging Using Fluorescence Methods
Simon Watkins and Claudette St. Croix

Microscopic imaging tools are one of the principal methodologies applied to the living system. This day-long workshop concentrates on live cell imaging using fluorescence methods, focusing on optimization of the entire microscope system. The goal is to collect the highest quality, most robust quantitative data without perturbing the cells being imaged. Lectures on the fluorescent proteins will be presented as well as discussions of the merits of newer methods such as TIRF and multiphoton imaging.

X-13 Basic Confocal Light Microscopy
Jay Jerome and Bob Price

Confocal microscopy has become a primary method for visualizing structure in three dimensions. The technology is rapidly evolving with new instruments, lasers, detectors, and spectral imaging capabilities. Bob and Jay will instruct beginning and intermediate researchers on carrying out successful biological confocal microscopy experiments. Emphasis will be on practical aspects of specimen preparation, instrument setup and operation and enhancement and analysis of the digital images collected by confocal microscopy. A general knowledge of optical microscopy is helpful, but no prior knowledge of confocal microscopy is necessary to benefit from the workshop.

X14 3D Electron Microscopy of Macromolecular Assemblies
Teresa Ruiz, Michael Radermacher, and Stefan Birmanns

This short course will provide a comprehensive description of the methods used for 3D structure determination of macromolecular complexes from electron micrographs. First specimen preparation techniques for single particles (deep stain, vitreous ice), will be presented and the selection of imaging conditions including low-dose imaging. This will be followed by a detailed explanation of image processing techniques with special emphasis on the random conical reconstruction technique. In the last part structure interpretation and docking of X-ray structures to 3D EM densities will be demonstrated. The techniques described have application in both biological and materials science.


X-15 Advanced Topics in the Theory and Use of Focused Ion Beam Tools
Joe Michael and Lucille Giannuzzi

The use of single platform FIB and dual platform FIB/SEM instruments in materials and biological science laboratories is growing rapidly. The versatility and the capabilities of these tools are also rapidly improving. This course will first cover ion/solid interactions that are so important for a user of FIB instrumentation to understand. We will then discuss techniques of sample preparation for SEM and TEM. The course will conclude with discussions of 3D applications and nanofabrication.

X-16 Electron Tomography in Life and Material Sciences
Ilke Arslan and Andy Hoenger

This short course will explain the basics of tomography, the experimental setups, and the instrumental prerequisites, illustrated by application examples. Bright-field, energy-filtered, and STEM tomographic methods will be discussed, emphasizing high resolution for materials applications, and low-dose cryo imaging for biological applications. A variety of reconstruction algorithms will be covered, as well as a survey of 3-D analysis and visualization methods. We intend the course to be of interest to both beginners and already-experienced users of electron tomography.

X-17 Imaging and Analysis with Variable Pressure or Environmental SEM
Brendan J. Griffin and Matthew Phillips

This short course aims to take the challenge out of imaging in variable pressure SEM mode. We will sequentially address VPSEM column components and operation, electron (SE and BSE), light (CL) imaging and x-ray analysis strategies and detectors for both biological and materials samples. Procedures for monitoring instrument performance and optimizing image quality will then be presented. Examples of the novel charge-related contrasts available in VPSEM will also be discussed. The appropriate use of hot, cool and cold stages is included. The course will conclude with invited manufacturer presentations on new developments. A CD with lecture PDFs is provided.

X-18 An Introduction to Atomic Force and Scanned Probe Microscopies
Lou Germinario

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has widespread application in all fields of science. Scanning Probe Microscopy techniques have become the workhorse of nanoscience and nanotechnology research, with resolution from atomic to millimeter scale and the ability to perform under air, liquid, or vacuum and on soft or hard materials. AFM provides topographic information and can measure mechanical, electrical and magnetic, as well as performing near-field probing of thermal and chemical properties. A description of AFMs in commonly-used and advanced modes of operation will be provided. Examples from materials and life sciences will illustrate the capabilities and limitations of SPM techniques.

X-19 Scientific Digital Imaging: Ethics and Execution
John Mackenzie

There is a need for standardization in scientific digital imaging in order to ensure proper ethical manipulation. This newly designed course will include a new Handbook for Scientific Digital Imaging. This handbook presents a standardized workflow with relevant theory to help kick start the standardization discussion. Topics covered include: The proper optimization of digital images; preparation of images for Powerpoint, posters, and publication including newer enhanced on-line versions; selection of the top-rated and most affordable printers, scanners, and software; best practices for archiving scientific digital images. Step by step demonstrations of the best strategy for reproducible image optimization using Photoshop.


X20 Microscopy and Nanomechanical Characterization
Julia Nowak

Nanomechanical testing is a versatile technique used for measuring and evaluating the mechanical properties of materials including modulus, hardness, fracture toughness, wear resistance, adhesion, and friction coefficient. This type of characterization can provide crucial information concerning the performance of materials. Nanomechanical testing is often combined with scanning probe microscopy and in recent years is being performed in conjunction with both transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. In this course we will explain the fundamentals of nanomechanical testing and its role in the microscopy arena, illustrated by application examples.

X-21 Advanced Electron Crystallography and Automated Crystal Mapping for Materials Applications
Wolfgang Neumann, Peter Moeck, Alwyn Eades, Edgar Rauch, Stavros Nicolopoulos, and Sergei Rouvimov

The development of novel electronic materials and nano-structures requires reliable metrology for an identification of crystal phases and orientations at nano-scale. Recent progress in automated acquisition and handling of 3-dimensional electron diffraction data opens new exciting opportunities for structure analysis in fast and reliable fashion. Course will cover basic principles of electron diffraction and crystallography as well as advances in automated data acquisition, crystal orientation and phase mapping, nano crystallographic fingerprinting, crystallographic image processing and their applications for materials research. Both lectures and exercises on structure analysis based on the electron diffraction and electron crystallography will be included.

X-22 How to Organize and Run a Failure Investigation
Daniel Dennis

The initial steps of a failure investigation set the direction and either ensures a successful investigation or dooms it to failure. This course provides the steps to organize a failure investigation and ensure success. Failure investigation is an integral component of any design or manufacturing business, large or small. However, a poorly organized failure investigation may not provide the necessary information to solve a manufacturing problem or assist a redesign. This course teaches a proven systematic approach to failure investigation, utilizing examples from industry. It is a learning platform for personnel from all disciplines; materials, design, manufacturing, quality and management.